FSMA

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FSMA

President Obama signed the FSMA in January 2011 as a response to the high number of deaths arising from foodborne diseases (Gary, Craig and Faye Par. 1). The Act was meant to improve the public health of the American citizens through different control and regulation measures. It was divided into sections for easier implementation. These included prevention, response, enhanced partnership, Inspection and imports (The FSMA Facts 1). The parts were controlled through the FDA to ensure they were adhered in the country.

The import part of the Act contains key elements, which I anticipate are described in great details to ensure it is unambiguous and enforceable. Some of these elements include the fact that: importers are supposed to verify the presence of preventative policies that regulate their food standards. They are supposed to be certified by the U.S government or equivalent agency as a control measure for the standards of the food supplied. Also, I anticipate the element of importers dealing in high risk foods being certified through the FDA before making supplies to the U.S.

Some real life situations make regulation of the import part difficult. For instance, there are many importers that collaborate with local companies to import ingredients that are used to manufacture foreign food in the country, which is difficult to control through the FDA.

The U.S citizens travelling back into the country with foreign food cannot be subjected to FDA food testing and regulation procedure . Therefore, such foods end in the country without being tested on standards.

In conclusion, the U.S government established the FSMA to regulate the food standards consumed by the citizens. The act was divided into parts such as imports, which regulates the standards of food from foreign countries.

 

MARIJUANA SOCIAL COSTS

ABSTRACT

Marijuana usage has led to a diverse opinion from scholars with intensive research taking root in the understanding of the drug. The evidence provided on both sides is strong because several beneficial outcomes are being proposed to the usage cannabis. Currently, the consumption of marijuana is prohibited in many countries but with the emergence of new knowledge on the subject, a debate has cropped with some activists suggesting that it should be approved for human use. The main basis of their proposal that has been written with the help of , is that it has the benefit of countering insomnia. Such claims, however, fail to realize the magnitude of social cost that is also associated with the use of cannabis. These effects range from both internal and external, implying that both the user and his immediate society are affected. The greatest concern for the user is that it causes then to develop health problems with the most notable being respiratory problems. Taking a wider outlook, the external consequences to the family due to the tension of interacting with marijuana victims is a major concern. In addition, the social cost of reduced labor due to loss of lives is a troubling factor for the government. In fact, the network of the internal and external effects is so close that it is difficult to draw a boundary on the limits of either side. These and other adverse effects have led to the maintenance of the stance that marijuana should not be legalized for human consumption.

Social Costs of Marijuana LegalizationSocial_Costs_of_Marijuana_Legalization

Many drugs that have a more adverse effect that the positive outcomes have been banned for human consumption. However, marijuana has been subject to debate with studies indicating that cannabis, as it is known in the medical field has its associated health benefits including pain alleviation and treating insomnia (Webb & Webb, 2014). Because of this, some bodies have voiced the idea that the drug should be legalized for the society to realize the full benefits it has to the human health. However, despite any positive outcome that could be suggested for marijuana, its use remains a health concern for the whole society because of the social costs that it causes to its victims and close associates.

The main social cost that marijuana causes can be classified into two main classes depending on who gets affected. In the case of the consumer of the product suffering the consequences, the effects are said to be internal. However, in the scenario where the effects are felt by the third party, either the family of the victim of the society, the effects are classified as external. The main internal costs that have could rise greatly if the drug is to be legalized are the negative health impacts. Glauser (2012, p. 17) asserts that studies have indicated that a daily user of marijuana has a 19 percent higher likelihood of developing respiratory complaints than a non-smoker. Other health effects that can be linked to cannabis usage include problems with learning, coordination, problem solving, judgment, mood, among many other negative impacts that could greatly rise if the drug was to be legalized (Governor’s Office of Drug Control Policy, n.d.). The society would thus end up with increased spending and intensive social efforts including counseling to victims to help them cope with academic work and interaction challenges.

Other than the effects that directly impact on the user, the other major concern about approving the usage of the cannabis is that it causes external effects. In this class, there are two major classes including the consequences to the family and the government. The main concern for the family is that users of marijuana have consistently displayed unethical behavior that is unacceptable in the society. It is stated that the main problems have been felt within the domestic setting with family tensions being the major topic of contention (Beckett & Herbert, 2010, p. 37). It must be emphasized however that such effects are due to the internal effects such as lowered judgment, which makes it hard for the victim to differentiate good from bad behavior.

The other major concern against the idea of permitting the usage of marijuana is that it leads to loss of lives thereby reducing the government’s workforce. As stated before, the external effects are due to the indirect correlation to the internal consequences. According to Glauser, (2012, p. 20) accidents due to poor judgment are the major threat to the government because research has shown that usage if cannabis increased the probability of injuries to the user by 30 percent. Because of the close association with the internal effects, it is difficult to quantify the external consequences that could result from legalizing the controversial drug (Glauser, 2012, p. 21).

In conclusion, marijuana usage has been subject to debate because of the positive outcome it has been shown to display of late. However, any positive effect is dwarfed by the realization that there exist both internal and external impacts to both the user and the society respectively. The main internal impact is that it leads to health concerns to the user. On a wider perspective usage of marijuana has led to poor interaction with family members. Still on the external perspective, usage of cannabis leads to poor judgment and hence resulting in accidents, which reduced a government’s manpower. Because of these social costs, it is suggested that marijuana remains illegal until studies prove that the positive outcomes outdo the negatives.

How portable computers influenced digital photography. Digital and Low-Photo digital portrait photography art form.

How portable computers influenced digital photography. Digital and Low-Photo digital portrait photography art form. Pictures has changedVan Dyke printing process begins first with solution surface of substrate under the UV light. The solution is a mixture of ferric ammonium citrate and silver nitrate. The substrate is then air dried and covered for a second time to produce bright, long-lasting images. Second, the placing of the negative on the dried and coated substrate takes place.

Taking photos has been in existence in the past century or so. It had been, anyhow, limited to only the ones who can afford the surveillance cameras that have been quite money-sucking and hard to operate. These were restricted to authorities and in addition the rich only. It has anyhow switched throughout the years as modern advances evolved and admittance to digital cameras have become more effortless. Laptops or computers made it even better while they transformed picture taking totally. The progress in computer systems resulted in the bound to happen continuing development of video cameras also. Out from the moistureless plates associated with the 1800s and also the start of report film in 1885. Your first cameras take advantage of film was given its name the Kodak and was apply to sales in 1888 to most people. It absolutely was a relatively basic contraption that can grab regular shots and appealed for your average site visitor. Continue Reading →

How pcs influenced taking photos. Virtual and Non-Digital cameras art form.

How pcs influenced taking photos. Virtual and Non-Digital cameras art form. KodakMarshall also identifies that another characteristic is the vantage point. Photographing the subject from a particular angle enables the photographer to achieve the vantage point. The angle could be from above, below, tilted sideways, or in terms of degrees.

Taking pictures has been around for the past century or so. It truly was, on the flip side, limited by only those who could afford the camcorders that have been considerably over-priced and difficult to operate. People were restricted to specialists as well as wealthy only. This has on the flip side switched in recent times as technological innovations emerged and having access to cams came to be more effortless. Computers made it even much easier because they transformed taking photographs utterly. The progress in computer technology resulted in the expected development of camcorders also. Out from the dry out plates on the 1800s while the childbirth of pieces of paper movie in 1885. The number one dslr camera to operate motion picture was given its name the Kodak and was placed on selling in 1888 to the general public. It was subsequently a rather simplistic contraption that can have everyday photographs and appealed on to the healthy client. Continue Reading →

How laptops or computers inspired pictures. Digital and No-Photo digital portrait photography method.

How laptops or computers inspired pictures. Digital and No-Photo digital portrait photography method. photography and boomFor the photograph’s message to be more significant, it must be timely. Just like in the case of news, the photograph’s message expires with time.

Taking photos has existed within the past century or possibly even longer. Rrt had been, additionally, confined to only individuals who can afford the surveillance cameras that have been a bit extravagant and difficult to operate. These were restricted to trained professionals as well as prosperous only. This has additionally altered year after year as concept evolved and admission to video cameras grew to become better. Pcs caused it to be even much less difficult as they quite simply transformed taking photographs totally. The advancement in computer systems produced the bound to happen growth of digital cameras also. Among the free of moisture plates using the 1800s as well start of document movie in 1885. Your first dslr camera to work with movie was called the Kodak and was dress yourself in final sale in 1888 to most people. It was a relatively fairly simple contraption that could seize ordinary images and appealed to a natural individual. Continue Reading →

How pcs affected photographs. A digital and No-Portrait digital photography technique.

How pcs affected photographs. A digital and No-Portrait digital photography technique. Taking photos

The vantage point allows the photographer to capture details about the subject more conveniently.

Images has been around within the past century or so. It was, regardless, restricted to only those who can afford the digital cameras that had been slightly extravagant and hard to work. They had been restricted to qualified personnel therefore the rich only. It has regardless greatly improved throughout the years as know-how changed and admission to surveillance cameras grew to become much less difficult. Desktops managed to get even much simpler as they transformed photography fully. The achievement in computer technology generated the bound to happen progress of video cameras also. On the dry up plates of that 19th century while the birth of document film in 1885. The 1st dslr camera to apply video was chosen the Kodak and was have on good discounts in 1888 to the public. It has been an extremely essential contraption which will carry usual shots and appealed on the way to common site visitor. Continue Reading →

How computing devices influenced picture taking. Electronic digital and No-Digital photography craft.

How computing devices influenced picture taking. Electronic digital and No-Digital photography craft. scientific cameras

Research shows that the method originated from the works of J.F. Herschel around 1840 who was the first to form an image on iron sensitizers. The method was named after Van Dyck, a Flemish painter, due to its use of the same print color as that used by Dyck.

Pictures has existed for the past century possibly even. It was actually, on the contrary, limited by only individuals who could afford the cameras that were slightly over-priced and difficult to function. These people were reserved for specialists plus the well-off only. This has on the contrary transformed through the years as software progressed and accessibility to surveillance cameras grew to be quicker. Pcs managed to get even a lot easier simply because they transformed taking photographs thoroughly. The improvement in computer technology caused the unavoidable development of cameras also. Among the dry dishes belonging to the 1800s while the childbirth of old fashioned paper motion picture in 1885. Your initial camera equipment to try film was given its name the Kodak and was apply to profit in 1888 to most people. It turned out a somewhat quick contraption which would carry healthy graphics and appealed to your everyday customer. Continue Reading →

How computer systems inspired images. Electronic digital and Non-Photo digital portrait photography fine art.

How computer systems inspired images. Electronic digital and Non-Photo digital portrait photography fine art. photographic printerAccording to Marshall, another inherent nature of the medium is the detail. Photography is tied to depicting the action taking place in the image at a glance.

Taking photos has been in existence over the past century or so. It was, bear in mind, limited to only individuals who could afford the surveillance cameras that were fairly extravagant and hard to use. These folks were reserved for individuals so the wealthy only. This has bear in mind evolved progressively as science advanced and the ways to access digital cameras turned faster. Portable computers managed to get even much easier as they transformed taking photographs certainly. The progression in computer systems resulted in the inescapable expansion of cameras also. For the dry out plates this 1800s so the childbirth of pieces of paper motion picture in 1885. The main video camera to utilize video was dubbed the Kodak and was wear sale made in 1888 to most people. Rrt had been an extremely user-friendly contraption that is going to take common photos and appealed to usual clients. Continue Reading →

How computer units influenced pictures. Computerized and Non-Portrait digital photography fine art.

How computer units influenced pictures. Computerized and Non-Portrait digital photography fine art. watercolor paperThe technique thrives through the use of various components such as a negative, a substrate and UV light source. The negative must be cut out to fit the size of the desired print a large (Moon 45). The use of the substrate is for coating with the negative following printing. Thus, the substrate should be anything that the solution can adhere to such as watercolor paper. The source of UV lights could be either sunlight or a bulb.

Taking pictures has been in existence in the past century roughly. It was, but yet, confined to only individuals who can afford the cams that had been a bit more costly and difficult to operate. These folks were reserved for workers and so the wealthy only. It has but yet greatly improved in the past as technologies improved and the ways to access video cameras turned out to be much less difficult. Desktops made it even simpler as they transformed digital photography altogether. The accomplishment in computer technology caused the bound to happen progress of surveillance cameras also. Through free of moisture plates of an 1800s and start of newspaper movie in 1885. The most important photographic camera to try video was referred to as the Kodak and was apply to transaction in 1888 to the general public. It was subsequently a rather straight forward contraption which often can receive standard snap shots and appealed to average individual. Continue Reading →

How computer units affected taking photographs. Digital and Low-Portrait digital photography technique.

How computer units affected taking photographs. Digital and Low-Portrait digital photography technique. Photos

Another characteristic of the medium is frame. Frame is the part that encloses the picture details. The frame, thus, marks the boundary of the photographs content. The structure aids in photo selection process. Photos are selected depending on their content inside the frame. Additionally, the photographer is constantly involved in the process of determining what content has more importance of framing is to avoid using either excess details or fewer details in the photograph.

Pictures has existed for the past century approximately. It was eventually, notwithstanding, restricted to only individuals who can afford the video cameras which were a little expensive and hard to work. They have been reserved for trained professionals while the rich only. It has notwithstanding transformed year after year as modern advances been refined and admittance to video cameras have become much simpler. Computers managed to make it even a lot easier while they revolutionized taking pictures definitely. The promotion in computer systems brought about the inescapable growth of digital cameras also. From arid dishes to the 19th century plus birth of pieces of paper video in 1885. The primary high-end camera to try movie was named the Kodak and was apply to good discounts in 1888 to most people. It became a very simplistic contraption which may take on natural images and appealed with the everyday shopper. Continue Reading →